"Potentially injury-causing stimuli (noxious stimuli) are detected by specialized nerves that are found in the skin, muscle and viscera. These damage-sensing neurons, nociceptors, respond to tissue damage and can cause a sensation of pain when they are activated.

Tissue damage is detected by sensory neurons that relay messages to the central nervous system. A torrent of information is emerging about the molecular control of these cells, and is opening exciting new opportunities for pharmaceutical development."

The following is a brief list of resources that may have application for clinicians practicing Manual Medicine.

Neuromatrix Theory of Pain

Man Ther. 2003 Aug;8(3):130-40.
A pain neuromatrix approach to patients with chronic pain.
Adv Psychosom Med. 2004;25:78-88.Neurobiology of pain.
Clin J Pain. 2004 Nov-Dec;20(6):469-76.Evidence, mechanisms, and clinical implications of central hypersensitivity in chronic pain after whiplash injury.
Brain. 1998 Sep;121 ( Pt 9):1603-30.The perception of phantom limbs. The D. O. Hebb lecture.

Ronald Melzack - Papers
J Dent Educ. 2001 Dec;65(12):1378-82.Pain and the neuromatrix in the brain.
Pain Pract. 2005 Jun;5(2):85-94.Evolution of the neuromatrix theory of pain. The Prithvi Raj Lecture: presented at the third World Congress of World Institute of Pain, Barcelona 2004.
Anesthesiology. 2005 Jul;103(1):199-202.The McGill pain questionnaire: from description to measurement.
Pain. 1999 Aug;Suppl 6:S121-6.From the gate to the neuromatrix.
Can J Exp Psychol. 1993 Dec;47(4):615-29.Pain: past, present and future.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Mar;933:157-74.Central neuroplasticity and pathological pain.
Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 1992 Jul-Aug;(4):52-4.Phantom limb pain.

Tuesday, September 8, 2009

Summer 2009

Pain Physician. 2009 Jul-Aug;12(4):699-802.
Comprehensive evidence-based guidelines for interventional techniques in the management of chronic spinal pain.
Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Aug 27;61(9):1202-1209. [Epub ahead of print]
Do psychological characteristics predict response to exercise and advice for subacute low back pain?
Curr Pharm Des. 2006;12(1):29-35.
Physical therapy modalities in management of fibromyalgia.

Sunday, February 15, 2009

Spring 2009

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009 Jan;90(1):109-17.
Is the fear avoidance model associated with the reduced level of aerobic fitness in patients with chronic low back pain?
Pain. 2009 Feb;141(3):276-82. Epub 2009 Jan 7.
Examination of the photograph series of daily activities (PHODA) scale in chronic low back pain patients with high and low kinesiophobia.
Int J Nurs Stud. 2008 Dec 30. [Epub ahead of print]
Biopsychosocial factors are associated with low back pain in female nursing students: A cross-sectional study.
Cephalalgia. 2000 Jun;20(5):486-508.
Central sensitization in tension-type headache--possible pathophysiological mechanisms.

Sunday, October 19, 2008

October 2008

Spine. 2008 Oct 15;33(22):E843-8.
Education of patients after whiplash injury: is oral advice any better than a pamphlet?
Psychosom Med. 2008 Oct;70(8):890-7.Association of depression and anxiety alone and in combination with chronic musculoskeletal pain in primary care patients.
Pain. 2008 Sep 9.
A randomized trial of behavioral physical therapy interventions for acute and sub-acute low back pain

Monday, July 7, 2008

July 2008

Microsurgery. 2008 Jun 16.
Facial pain and headache associated with brachial plexus compression in the thoracic inlet.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Jul;87(7):527-36.
Withdrawal of analgesic medication for chronic low-back pain patients: improvement in outcomes of multidisciplinary rehabilitation regardless of surgical history.
Pain Physician. 2008 May-Jun;11(3):271-89.
Review of occupational medicine practice guidelines for interventional pain management and potential implications.

Wednesday, June 18, 2008

June 2008

Spine. 2008 May 20;33(12):1372-7.
Differences in low back pain behavior are reflected in the cerebral response to tactile stimulation of the lower back.
Int J Epidemiol. 2008 May 29. [Epub ahead of print]
Cultural differences in musculoskeletal symptoms and disability.
J Gen Intern Med. 2008 May 1. [Epub ahead of print]
Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain and Statin Use.
Int J Rehabil Res. 2008 Jun;31(2):165-9.
Reliability and validity of the visual analogue scale for disability in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

Wednesday, January 30, 2008

February 2008

Clin J Pain. 2008 Jan;24(1):22-9.
Accepting low back pain: is it related to a good quality of life?